Dr. Mahmoud Yousef Askari is an associate professor of management with research expertise in Utility and Rational Decision Making, Incentives and Motivation, Human Capital Management, and Higher Education Funding & Leadership. Before joining Al Ain University, he served as an Analyst and Management Consultant in the retail industry in Canada.
Doctorate: Leadership (University of Calgary), Canada.
Master: Administration and Leadership (Brock University), Canada.
Master: Business Administration (Laurentian University), Canada.
Bachelor: Accounting (Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan), Jordan.
Canadian Securities Course(CSC): Financial Planning(Canadian Securities Institute), Canada.
Conduct and Practices Handbook(CPH), (Canadian Securities Institute), Canada.
High School Diploma, (Wisconsin, USA).
Utility and Rational Decision Making; Incentives and Motivation; Human Capital Management; Higher Education Funding & Leadership.
Askari, M.Y. (2021). Innovation and Entrepreneurship (الابتكار وريادة الأعمال). Al Ain, UAE: Al Ain University
Askari, M.Y. (2019). A new social contract: A recipe for higher education funding. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/dp/1795559594
Askari, M.Y. (2019). Life movement management. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.ca/dp/B07MZ4YGP5
- Askari, M.Y. & El Refae, G.A. (Accepted on January 12, 2022). A Hypothesis on Rationalizing Decisions by Constructing Personal Realities. Int. J. of Economics and Business Research.
- Askari, M.Y. & El Refae, G.A. (Accepted on April 22, 2021). Funding Higher Education as a Strategic Good of a Nation. Int. J. of Economics and Business Research.
- Askari, M.Y. & El Refae, G.A. (2020). Does profit sharing enhance productivity: Evidence from the retail food industry in Canada. Int. J. Business Excellence, 22 (3), PP. 336-351.
- Askari, M.Y. (2020). The role of individualism and selfishness in rationalizing decisions. Philosophical Readings, XII (1), pp. 342-348. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.3865586
- Askari, M.Y. & El Refae, G.A. (2019). The rationality of irrational decisions: A new perspective of behavioral economics. Int. J. Economics and Business Research, 17 (4), pp. 388-401.
- El Refae, G.A., Belarbi, A., & Askari, M.Y. (2019). Understanding the invisible hands of incentives. Global Business and Economics Review, 21 (1), pp.3–13. https://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=96851
- Askari, M.Y., Mazouz, A.& El Refae, G.A. (2018). Crafting employability strategy in skills-driven labour markets. Int. J. Economics and Business Research, 16 (1), pp.126–136. https://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=93379
- Askari, M. Y. (2017). Competing strategies to balance the budgets of publicly funded higher education institutions. Interchange, 48 (4): 377–386. DOI 10.1007/s10780-017-9308-z.
- Askari, M. Y. (2017). Faculty development of business educators to facilitate students’ employment. AAU Journal of Business and Law, 1 (1) 6-13. https://digitalcommons.aaru.edu.jo/aaujbl/vol1/iss1/1/
- Askari, M. Y. (2016). A theory of equality and intangible wealth distribution. International Journal of Business and Management Studies, 05(01):1–12. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/256063432_A_Theory_of_Equality_and_Intangible_Wealth_Distribution
- El Refae, G.A., Askari, M. Y. and Alnaji, L., (2016). Does the industry advisory board enhance education quality. Int. J. Economics and Business Research, 12 (1), 32–43. https://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=78800
- Alnaji, L., Askari, M.Y. and El Refae, G.A. (2016). Can tolerance of diverse groups improve the wellbeing of societies? Int. J. Economics and Business Research, 11 (1), 48–57. https://www.inderscience.com/info/inarticle.php?artid=74428
- Askari, M. Y. (2015a). Financing human capital development by increasing the minimum wage: Evidence from Canada. The Journal of Applied Business Research, 31 (4), 1605-1620. https://clutejournals.com/index.php/JABR/article/view/9340/9400
- Askari, M. Y. (2015b). Participatory evaluation of performance in multi-unit business organizations. Global Business & Economics Anthology, 1, 36-44.
- Second International Scientific Conference On It, Tourism, Economics, Management and Agriculture - ITEMA 2018 (November 8, 2018), Graz, Austria.
- Towards Advanced Scientific Knowledge in Business Sciences, 2nd AFU International Conference (May 1st -3rd, 2018), Dubai, UAE.
- The 30th Business & Economics Society International (B&ESI) Conference (January 8-11, 2017), Abu Dhabi, UAE.
- International Conference for Academic Disciplines, (January 31st - February 4th, 2016), Al Ain, UAE.
- Business and Economics Society International Conferences, (March, 2015), Al Ain, UAE.
Organizational Behavior (U), Managing Performance (U), Principles of Management (U), Fundamentals of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (U), Strategic Human Resource Management (G & U), Strategic Management (G), Human Resource Development (G & U), HR Planning, Recruitment & Staffing (U), Compensation and Benefits Management (U), Business Ethics (U), Ethical Awareness (U).
Published in: Int. J. of Economics and Business Research
Jan 12, 2022
In this paper, we propose a hypothetical model to show how people construct their realities, and how they subjectively rationalize their decisions and actions. We hypothesize that when making individual decisions, what matters is the reality as perceived by individual decision makers, regardless of the objective or subjective approach to reality. The paper attempts to study the link between perceived reality (subjective reality), and how people rationalize their decisions and actions. The paper sheds light on how people know what they know, and how that might affect their sense of rationality when making decisions. The paper explains that people come across knowledge in a daily basis, and that they decide to accept, reject, or adjust that knowledge, using their subjective validation process that is guided by their experiences, biases, and beliefs.
Published in: Int. J. of Economics and Business Research
Apr 22, 2021
In this paper, we propose that higher education should be seen as a strategic good of nations. We argue that Higher education is neither a private, nor a public good, and that its facilitation by governments, and its attainment of citizens is critically required for the wellbeing of a nation. As well, we use the partnership funding model of higher education as a framework to facilitate the strategic investment in higher education by economically capable governments. We used enrollment and funding data from Al Ain University, UAE as a case to examine the percentage of students who were able to secure government funding to pay their tuition fees. Result from this paper shows that higher education is considered as a strategic good in the UAE, and that all willing and able citizens can benefit from the availability of tuition free higher education at three publicly-funded academic institutions. As well, the UAE government is providing funding to almost half of the students who choose to attend other tuition-based colleges and universities.
Published in: Int. J. Business Excellence
Oct 02, 2020
In this paper, we provide further support for using profit sharing to enhance productivity and profitability from the retail food industry in Canada. The overall Gross Profit Percentage (GP%) of a retail store was used as a measure of productivity and profitability for the store. In addition, and as another measure of productivity, the study compared the performance of one of the most sensitive departments in a food retail store, and that is the GP% of the Produce department. Results show that the overall actual GP% of the studied location has increased by 1.74% in the first quarter of using profit sharing, when compared with the previous quarter. Results also show an actual GP% increase of 1.12% for the profit sharing quarter when compared with the previous year that preceded the shift to profit sharing compensation system.
Published in: Philosophical Readings
Jun 02, 2020
In this paper, I propose that individualism and selfishness are embedded in every individual, and that their existence is needed to provide rationale for the actions of individuals. I argue that people are motivated by their targeted benefits as individuals, and rationalize their decisions to reach their individual targets using their selfishness in both individualists and collectivists cultures. As well, I propose that selfishness is good and is not a sin, and I introduce a new definition of selfishness. My approach and methodology in proposing my arguments depends on the conduct of thought experiments of the debated ideas, and on readers’ ability to undertake similar thought experiments and reach similar conclusions and understandings. I ask readers to conduct a mental experiment of the proposed ideas using the reasoning that I propose. I believe that thought experiments on individualism and selfishness and their role in the rationalization of human decisions could be easily conducted by all readers.
Published in: Int. J. Economics and Business Research
Mar 22, 2019
This paper is an attempt to contribute to the field of behavioral economics by proposing a new perspective of utility and rational decision making. We use the method of Thought Experiment, as well as, hypothetical examples of decision making to explain the rationality of decisions that might be seen by economics as irrational. We hypothesize that all decisions are rational at the individual level, and that all decisions are justified by decision makers and maximize the decision maker’s perceived utility. To do this, we redefine rationality at the decision maker’s level, and we explain how individuals customize rationales for their own actions to make decisions that maximize their perceived utility. We also redefine utility to include both tangible and intangible dimensions, and we discuss how the customization of rationales and the perception of utility at the individual level make all decisions rational. We also propose a model to hypothetically calculate full utility attainment (maximum utility) by the individual.
Feb 03, 2019
This book proposes that a new social contract between governments and citizens is needed to facilitate higher education funding. The rationale for this new social contract is based on the lifelong relationship of governments and citizens that should be seen as a partnership between two partners. The book assumes that the relationship between government and its learning citizens extends beyond citizens’ acquisition of knowledge or completion of degrees and includes different periods of funding in which the two sides exchange the funding role throughout the lifetime of a citizen. The book proposes that higher education should be seen by governments as a public good due to the benefits gained by the general public in the form of higher income taxes paid by educated citizens throughout their working years. The book argues that if governments consider higher education as a private good and force learners to finance their own education, the benefit of consuming this private good should only stay with its private consumer, and may not be shared with anybody else. This means that governments may not have the right to tax those who paid for their own higher education, and may not share their assumed private benefits. This also means that the higher income taxes paid by educated citizens who financed their own education may not be justified.To explain the proposed social contract, the book has investigated whether the partnership approach and the three life stages of citizens (the learning stage, the working stage, and the retirement stage) can be used as a guiding rationale for a new social contract that supports full government funding of higher education. The book proposes that during the learning stage of a citizen, the government, as the financing partner of this stage, needs to pay the full cost of all learning levels. After the citizen completes the intended levels of education, the citizen moves to the working stage and starts paying the government partner a share of the partnership profit (income taxes) throughout the working life of the citizen partner. When the citizen partner reaches retirement, the government resumes its financing role through pension payments, old age security payments, or other kind of payment to help the retired citizen through retirement years.
Published in: Life movement management
Jan 23, 2019
أقدم في هذا الكتاب تصورا جديدا لحركة الحياة وما يحددها وماهية أركانها ضمن تصور جديد يساعد على فهم أفعال الناس وما يحفزهم للقيام بها. وأضع بين يدي القارىء الكريم معادلة لفهم جوانب حركة الحياة الأربعة. وإنني لأرجو من الله سبحانه وتعالى أن ينفع به خلقه، وأن يعينهم على فهم ما يحدث في هذه الحياة من أفعال تصدر عن البشر أو المؤسسات أو الدول، وأن يعين به على إدارة وتغيير ما لا يرغب به من أفعال وإستبدالها بالمستحب منها على مستوى الأفراد والمؤسسات والمجتمعات.
Published in: Global Business and Economics Review
Jan 01, 2019
This paper sheds light on the role of incentives in explaining why we do what we do. In this paper, we theorise that no action will take place in vacuum or without a certain incentive(s) and that for each and every action or behaviour, there is a known and/or a hidden incentive. We also theorise that the existence of incentives behind every action is not limited to rational incentives and the rationality of actors because irrational actions have their own irrational incentives. As well, we theorise that the existence of incentives in our daily life is the secret of a livable life and that the disappearance of incentives will lead to a total stop of every action and a total stop of life. In addition, we theorise that life at the micro, meso and macro levels can be created by creating the needed incentives for a given situation and life can also be taken away by removing incentives behind its existence. We also propose and introduce a new incentive-focussed management technique - management by incentives (MBI) - for an effective implementation of a goal achievement process.
May 01, 2018
This Empirical study introduces the partnership approach as a social contract for higher education funding in which the three life stages of citizens (the learning stage, the working stage, and the retirement stage) can be used as a guiding rationale to support the full government funding of higher education. The paper assumes that the lifelong partnership of governments and learners can be fair if each party were to pay its fair share of the costs. The study assumes that the relationship between government and its learning citizens extends beyond citizens’ acquisition of knowledge or completion of degrees and includes different periods of funding in which the two sides exchange the funding role throughout the lifetime of a citizen.
Published in: Int. J. Economics and Business Research
Jan 01, 2018
In this paper, we propose that universities could facilitate the employability of their graduates by utilizing the three main university functions of teaching and learning, research, and community engagement. Our approach is built on the assumption that the role of universities in the success of their graduates might exceed the transmission of theoretical knowledge in a typical classroom and should go beyond their graduation ceremony. The professional life journey of students starts after graduation and as soon as they start their trained-for careers in the labour market. To reach that happy end of starting the desired future career, universities have a role to play in making the dream of a good job come true. Thus, we argue that the four years period that students spend in getting their bachelor degrees should include a mixture of theoretical knowledge, applied skills, and a taste of work in real life organizations.
Published in: AAU Journal of Business and Law
Oct 01, 2017
This paper highlights the needs of faculty development for business professors and sheds light on why business education is unique when compared to other disciplines. The paper argues that different disciplines should not be painted with the same faculty development brush when designing a development strategy. It also proposes that business professors, similar to other professors of applied fields, need to go through an industry experience as part of their faculty development process. Establishing the link between theory and practice is important for graduating business students which could shape their skills and facilitate their employment. The paper also proposes that one way to establish this link is through an applied pedagogical approach with the use of case studies to simulate real life situations.
Published in: Interchange
Jul 01, 2017
This paper compares and contrasts different strategies to balance academic institutions’ operating budgets. Some strategies use economic theory to recommend a budgeting technique, others use management methods to cut cost, and some strategies use a management accounting approach to reach a balanced budget. Through the use of a simplified numerical example of a breakeven analysis model, this paper argues that excess capacity and high enrolment levels are needed for some proposed budget balancing recommendations to work. It also argues that low enrolment institutions and academic units need to be subsidized to keep their doors open.
Published in: International Journal of Business and Management Studies
Dec 01, 2016
In this paper, I present a new vision of fairness and a Theory of Equality and Intangible Wealth Distribution. The paper offers a discussion on how equality and the distribution of intangible wealth are linked to equality in the dissemination of knowledge through academic institutions. It also presents a rationale for an equal distribution of intangible wealth, how intangible wealth of nations is increasing, and how intangible wealth is linked to the modern means of production. This paper also introduces a formula to measure the value of intangible wealth at the individual level, explains the superiority of this wealth, and highlights the role of academic institutions, researchers, and professors in the production and distribution of knowledge assets.
Published in: Int. J. Economics and Business Research
Jul 01, 2016
This paper is an attempt to study the role of the advisory board members in improving education quality and to determine if such role improves education quality. The study utilized a questionnaire that was constructed based on the literature review covering advisory board tasks, roles, and member characteristics and the effects of these factors on the quality of education. Three out of five correlations (culture/community related variables, university administration related variables, and diversity of advisory board members) were found to be significant and are consistent with previous literature. Also, the role of the advisory board in facilitating a smooth transition of students to the labour market and the issue of graduates’ employability are highlighted in this paper for future research.
Published in: Int. J. Economics and Business Research
Jan 01, 2016
People are different, regardless of their assumed similarities, and acknowledging this reality is important for proper communication and interaction. Failing to acknowledge the existence of differences among those with whom we interact could lead to miscommunication, or even conflict in some cases. Thus, a high level of sensitivity is needed to attain sustainable participation in groups and communities, even if those groups or communities are formed by only a few individuals. This paper explores the role of tolerance towards diverse groups on improving the wellbeing of citizens. The paper finds that there is a significant relationship between a society's wellbeing and its tolerance towards diverse groups. The paper is divided into three sections. The first section discusses the literature of tolerance and diversity, Section 2 addresses the sample data used in the study and the statistical analysis. The third and last sections introduce the analysis and the results.
Published in: The Journal of Applied Business Research
Jul 13, 2015
This study provides empirical evidence that using the minimum wage as a tool to generate extra taxes to establish a fully publically-funded higher education system is a harmless approach to boost funding for human capital development without changing governments spending priorities or raising current tax rates. The paper proposes a method to finance human capital development through higher education by generating more income taxes from a higher minimum wage and through an effective link of the minimum wage to the Consumer Price Index (CPI) in Canada. The paper also argues that indexed minimum wage adjustments will help in fighting poverty, maintain an acceptable living standard for minimum wage workers, reduce dependence on government subsidies, and make-work more attractive. The paper concludes that using minimum wage adjustments as a tool to generate tax revenues and fund higher education could be an effective fiscal tool and could be considered a safe political instrument.
Published in: Global Business & Economics Anthology
Mar 31, 2015
This paper sheds light on the use of participatory evaluation in the practice of performance measurement. The paper argues that a participatory approach could be used in performance measurement in which managers of units participate in the understanding phase of the evaluation process of their units. The paper highlights the following questions: (1) Can business organizations utilize social construction as a theoretical framework in the performance measurement process? (2) Can quantitative measures of performance reveal the true picture of a business unit? (3) Can a participatory evaluation approach increase organizations' understanding of local realities in each business unit?